G's Easy Food Substitutions
Common Food Substitutions
Eggs (for people allergic to eggs)
"For each egg, substitute one of the following in recipes. These substitutes work well when baking from scratch and substituting 1 to 3 eggs.
Whole milk - The exact components of raw milk varies by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein, and calcium and Vitamin C. With a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, cow's milk is slightly acidic. Milk is a common ingredient in many baking recipes, including custards, cookies, cakes and breads. Milk encourages the browning reactions characteristic of baked goods like pastry crusts, cookies, and biscuits. Milk contributes to the keeping quality of bread and gives it a soft crust.
Evaporated milk, also known as dehydrated milk, is a shelf-stable milk product that's had about 60% of its water content removed from fresh milk. Unlike, condensed milk, evaporated milk has no added sugar and must undergo additional processing to prevent bacterial growth.
Powdered milk is a dairy product that is made by evaporating milk to the point of dryness. Dried milk has a longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not require refrigeration due to its low moisture content. Powdered milk is also much more economical to transport. Powdered milk and dairy products include such items as dry whole milk, non-fat dry milk, dry buttermilk, dry whey products and dry dairy blends.
Buttermilk is the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. Whether traditional or cultured, the tartness of buttermilk is due to the presence of acid in the milk. The increased acidity is caused by lactic acid a natural byproduct naturally produced by lactic acid bacteria the primary sugar found in milk. This process makes buttermilk thicker than plain milk. While both traditional and cultured buttermilk contain lactic acid, traditional buttermilk tends to be thinner while cultured buttermilk is much thicker.
G's Geeky Guide to Food Science
I'm kinda embarrassed that I still remember I learned way back in Baking Technology class. Understanding the function of each food component in a recipe is invaluable in helping make effective food substitutions, especially for healthy recipes. Thanks to Wikipedia and my handy dandy Food Lovers Companion, I'm able to list most of them. Read through these major food science categories to get you started.